|Wareysi Ogaal Radio ay la yeelatay Ergayga Gaarka ah ee Xafiiska Madaxweynha Soomaaliya|
|Written by Administrator|
|Tuesday, 21 February 2012 20:50|
Wareysi Ogaal Radio ay la yeelatay Ergayga Gaarka ah ee Xafiiska Madaxweynha Soomaaliya u qaabilsan Xidhiidhka Caalamiga, Deeqaha iyo Dib u dhiska Dalka , The Office of the Presidential Special Envoy for International Coordination of Relief and Reconstruction Mr. Mohamed A. Doli, (Juris Doctor).
Table of contents
The Purpose_ 4
The Targets 4
The Strategies 5
Pillar 0: Conduct Immediate Fixes to Jumpstart Economy_ 5
A. Assign Concessions for Oil and Gas Exploration_ 5
B. Enhance indigenous technology in developing alternate energy to boost agricultural and cottage industry productions 5
Somalia government would like to invest in the growth of indigenous technology using inventor and innovation programs that will jump start several projects targeting the following: 5
C. Embark on land Reclamation program in the desert 6
D. Use windmills and low cost water pumping system to irrigate lands for agricultural boost 6
E. Create Grameen Bank Model of Micro Credit programs for Loan disbursements to empower women and the poor 6
F. Enhance Livestock Exports to the Middle Eastern Countries 6
Pillar 1: Enhance Peace and Security_ 7
A. Establish Viable Security Conditions 7
B. Combat Piracy_ 7
C. Support reconciliation through dialogue and peace-building at political and community levels. A priority of the Somali Government 8
D. Based on democratic principles, support the establishment and/or strengthening of effective governance and macroeconomic structures 8
E. Support the effective participation of Non-State Actors in peace-building and good governance. 9
PILLAR 2: ENHANCE SOCIAL SERVICES_ 9
A. Institutional development 9
B. Education_ 9
C. Health_ 10
D. Water and sanitation_ 11
Pillar 3: Poverty reduction and the consolidation of peace through sustainable and equitable economic growth 11
A. Strengthen Institutional Capabilities 11
B. Develop Private/Public Partnerships 13
Cross-cutting issues 13
A. Conflict prevention_ 13
B. Gender 13
C. Environment 14
D. HIV/AIDS_ 14
Implementation and financing mechanisms 14
Monitoring and Evaluation_ 15
Focal sectors 15
Focal sector 1: Immediate Fixes 15
Focal sector 2: Governance_ 16
Focal sector 3: Education_ 17
Focal sector 4: Economic Development and Food Security_ 18
Strategic Task and Outcome Matrix 19
Pillar 0: Immediate fixes 19
Enhance indigenous technology in developing alternate energy to boost agricultural and cottage industry productions 19
Develop Land Reclamation Projects 20
Institute Grameen Bank Model of Micro Credit Program to support Cottage industry and Agriculture Sector development 20
Enhance Livestock and Agriculture Exports to the Middle East and other countries in the area_ 20
Pillar 1: Deepen Peace and Security_ 21
Pillar 2: Enhance Social Services 29
Pillar 3: Poverty reduction and the consolidation of peace through sustainable and equitable economic growth 36
The purpose of this document is to present an implementation strategy for the Road Map illustrating the reconstruction and rehabilitation plan for Somalia with an aim to deepen peace, enhance security, jumpstart economy, and reduce poverty. The proposed Implementation Strategy is being submitted through the office of the Presidential Special Envoy for International Coordination of Relief and Reconstruction Mr. Mohamed A. Doli (Juris Doctor).
The proposal intends to achieve the following targets in 5 years time.
Pillar 0: Conduct Immediate Fixes to Jumpstart Economy
One of the major focuses of the proposed plan is to jump start economy in order create jobs and bring much needed flow of money to the people that are most vulnerable. It is recognized that most of the young local fighters have joined the Al Shabab Group to earn a living. Other sources of safe and decent opportunities of employment will without any doubt drain Al Shabab’s recruitment pool. In doing so the project would aim to achieve the following in 2012 and early months of 2013.
Somalia is sitting on a strategic location that is bound to have good oil and gas reserves given the extent of the available plates and the geological conditions that support Oil and Gas reserves. It is the intent of the Government of Somalia to start oil and gas exploration both on and off shore sites. The government intends to divide the probable concessions into four main regions and assign these to foreign explorers to develop Somalia’s oil and gas potential.
Somalia government would like to invest in the growth of indigenous technology using inventor and innovation programs that will jump start several projects targeting the following:
Much of the rugged and desert lands in Somalia provide a great opportunity to turn it into arable land using sprinkler systems that are inexpensive and easy to install. These technologies are readily available and can be produced locally with very minimal investments. The government of Somalia intends to distribute these desert areas to the young generation with ample training and support to make these deserts bloom into arable lands producing wheat, vegetables and fruits. It will also look to introduce drip irrigation to encourage effective use of the scarce water resources. This will improve the food security and eventually create the capacity to export to other countries.
The shores of Somalia have ample around the year wind that can be harnessed to create windmills and similar wind run motors and pumps that can be well utilized in enhancing the irrigation systems to boost production and reclaim new land for much needed food production in the country. Special emphasis will be given to the youth, who are ready to lay down their arms in exchange for land. Special teams will be developed to render technical assistance in getting the youth trained in such indigenous technologies and in setting up their own shops.
It is very difficult for the general masses in Somalia to have access to credits in order to open a new business or strengthen some of the existing cottage based industry in the villages away from the main cities. The Government of Somalia intends to open up a micro credit program using the Grameen bank model of Nobel Laureate Prof. Yunus from Bangladesh. He has a successful model that worked for Bangladesh in empowering especially women headed households. A similar structure will have been promulgated as an immediate project under the management of the Ministry of Social affairs and would be brought under the Social Fund for Development program as indicated later in the document.
Somalians have extensive past experience in breeding and exporting livestock. The Government of Somalia would like to bank on these experiences to generate a self sustaining and productive program to improve the quality of livestock production and to significantly improve export in two years. The program will provide technical assistance in breeding and maintenance programs and creating international links with other governments in the area and in the Middle East where there is considerable shortages of livestock.
Pillar 1: Enhance Peace and Security
A. Establish Viable Security Conditions
The strategy will focus on support to enhance security, governance (institutional capacity – state institutions, including executive, legislative and judiciary, planning, regulatory frameworks, etc.), establishment/development of a civilian police force and implementation of Demobilisation, Disarmament and Reintegration (DDR) programmes. The importance of regional aspects in the Somali context will require that IGAD and the AU play an active role in this sector. It is also expected to create a strong and well armed paramilitary security force to oversee national security and fight piracy in the sea. Programmes will be context-sensitive and responsive to the political environment as it develops. Parliamentarians will be a key target group in order to strengthen democratic debate and oversight.
B. Combat Piracy
“Although piracy manifests itself at sea, the roots of the problem are to be found ashore,” Mr. Ban Ki-moon said. “In essence, piracy is a criminal offence that is driven by economic hardship, and that flourishes in the absence of effective law enforcement.”
Ransom payments add up to hundreds of millions of dollars, creating a “pirate economy” in areas of Somalia that make them more resistant to efforts to develop alternative livelihoods and despite the deployment of significant naval assets to the region, the number of hijackings and victims has risen significantly.
The Government of Somalia intends to step up their efforts to combat piracy with both a short and a long term plan. This will involve major support from the donor countries and active support from the members of the African Union.
In the short term, the Government of Somalia would like to involve the proposed multi-national force to immediately halt the active piracy threat from the shores of Somalia. This will include locating and destroying the speed boats, arms and ammunition depots located on the shore lines and developing an active Coast Guard unit under the National Security Force and Somalian Navy to monitor the shore lines of Somalia. Under the long term plan, efforts will be made to dislodge the pirates under the DDR program.
C. A priority of the Somali Government is to support reconciliation through dialogue and peace-building at the political and community levels.
Short and medium-term support will be provided to the reconciliation and dialogue process. At the national level, this will involve sustained support for the activities of the independent National Reconciliation Commission provided for in the Transitional Federal Charter. In the short term, assistance will focus on the organisation of an independently managed National Reconciliation Congress as the critical first step towards inclusive governance and the realisation of the core objectives of the transitional period (a new constitution adopted by referendum and democratically elected institutions). In the meantime, the 1960 Constitution and TFG charter of 2004 should be the basis of Governing.
At the community level, special attention will be paid to supporting and developing the role of traditional leadership in conflict resolution. The strategy will also strengthen the role of women and women’s groups in advocating peaceful resolution of conflicts at political and community levels.
D. Based on democratic principles, support the establishment and strengthening of effective governance and macroeconomic structures
State-building is the most important initiative for Somalia once viable security conditions are established. A specific medium term priority in this context will be to support the independent National Constitutional and Federal Commission provided for in the Transitional Federal Charter. The strategy will further support the development and strengthening of coherent governance structures at all levels (federal, regional and district and with special attention to urban centres) with agreed levels of autonomy as prescribed in the constitutional framework.
The macroeconomic framework and state financial institutions and public finance management in resource allocation, revenue raising and accountability will be re-established or strengthened. There will be a specific focus on supporting local governance as a sustainable entry point in a volatile and fragile political situation. Governance in urban areas, important for both economic and political growth, will be strengthened and complemented by limited infrastructure development. Despite provision for women’s representation in the transitional federal charter, actual representation in the current structures is very limited at federal, regional and district levels. This will be addressed by proactive interventions working with existing women’s groups. The process will involve the private banking sector in extending credits and other facilities to jumpstart economy.
E. Support the effective participation of Non-State Actors in peace building and good governance.
The strategy will ensure that there is adequate space and opportunity for civil society and the private sector to contribute to policy decision making and strategic priority setting. In particular, Non-State Actors (NSAs) will be encouraged to have a greater say and more involvement in the reconstruction of the country as a whole through cooperation with local authorities, delivering services, supporting the democratic role of parliament and other public scrutiny bodies to increase accountability, and supporting a free media. All NSAs, including often excluded groups, will continue to be given space during the planning and delivery of development programmes supporting the state-building process. The strategy will also provide assistance to other NSA groups (e.g. traditional leaders) to regain and strengthen their status in the reconciliation process. Specific support will target women and women’s groups to develop common agendas and to advocate for a fair role in the reconstruction of the country.
Many donors engaged in Somalia already jointly support peace and reconciliation initiatives and intend to continue or increase their support in this area which. Thus, the government will work with donors to support capacity development in these areas (allocation and accountability, civil service reform/ development).
PILLAR 2: ENHANCE SOCIAL SERVICES
A. Institutional development
Strengthen government and non-government institutions at federal, regional and decentralised levels to coordinate and enabling the delivery of social services, especially ensuring access for the dwellers in the rural areas will be a priority.
The strategy will build towards an integrated, horizontal and sector-wide approach, addressing the varying needs and capacities in the regions, districts and the private sector. It will support an enabling regulatory and policy role for government, ensuring improved quality and monitoring of service delivery, and ensuring that service delivery is inclusive and accessible to all. Partnerships with the private sector, NGOs and other providers will be supported to meet demand and improve service quality. Critical attention will be paid to addressing financing of services – particularly affordability and access for the very poorest..
Strengthen and/or establish the education institutional frameworks for the delivery of accessible and good quality education for all Somalis including formal and non-formal education will be a goal. A sector-wide approach to education will aim to provide access to broad-based education for all children and for adults who have missed out on education because of conflict, instability and inadequate or non-existent government institutions. Activities in this sector will focus on improved delivery of basic formal and non-formal education for children and adults. This will include literacy training; education support for nomadic groups, internally displaced people, improving standards and curricula; linking vocational training with labour market opportunities (including for ex-combatants in DDR programmes); expanding professional (non-financial) links with Islamic education systems (the strategic objective being to boost participation levels and integration, and achieve better harmonisation/articulation); at the same time, present quality concerns (characterised by extremely low rates of enrolment) will be addressed through continued and intensified training of teachers and improved (more relevant) curricula, also including people with special needs.
The education sector support will address these immediate concerns with a programme of rapid action based on a structured rationale which will seek to improve, in the medium term, the capacity of Somali institutions in the areas of policy formulation and planning on the basis of sound data, concepts and appropriate institutional settings.
The strategy will ensure better donor harmonisation and alignment with the needs of Somali partners, as well as increased coordination amongst those providing education services and support to ensure coherent and strategic approaches to education. This will commence from Primary Education right through to the University level. Emphasis will be put on Science and Computer Education. Involvement of non-traditional donors and partners will also be an important focus of activity. Initial work will seek to consolidate interventions within an overall strategic framework. Following close sector policy dialogue and improved coordination (with other development partners and on the ground) the government will ensure that funding will warrant effective (and visible) changes.
The strategy will strengthen the technical and administrative capacity of the health sector to sustain delivery of, and access to, good quality basic health care. It will support increasing coverage in the rural areas and improvement of the quality of basic health care; strengthen the development of efficient health systems and progressively reduce inequality of access to basic health services.
The strategy focuses on consolidating and rationalising the existing healthcare delivery system, strengthening an agreed set of health facilities, improving health service delivery systems, increasing funds for recurrent costs, carrying out limited, urgent rehabilitation work, upgrading the skills of health personnel, management and health information systems and support for tertiary health institutions. Financing of health care will be an important focus of attention – including salaries of health personnel, user fees and subsidy schemes, and ensuring retention of skilled Somali health personnel.
Humanitarian and disease-specific control programmes will continue to receive support through existing mechanisms. Tertiary health care is being supported by Italy, and the UK is exploring how to engage in the sector, possibly building on the current programme of decentralised primary healthcare provision and capacity-building implemented by UNICEF.
D. Water and sanitation
The strategy will promote equitable and environmentally sustainable access to water and sanitation in line with the MDGs. The strategy will focus on delivery of water & sanitation services and hygiene education to communities, primarily through public-private partnerships. Priority will be given to providing affordable access to rural communities and providing water and sanitation to all schools and clinics. As Somalia is water scarce, sustainable water resource management will need to be an integral component of all water supply programmes, particularly managing the balance between human and agricultural needs. Support related to water and sanitation will be channelled though interventions in the rural development, food security, education and health. Since access to water is a key area of conflict, water issues will be addressed in conflict prevention efforts.
Pillar 3: Poverty reduction and the consolidation of peace through sustainable and equitable economic growth
Broad-based growth to generate employment and incomes will be central to the effective consolidation of peace and reduction of poverty. The immediate post-conflict environment will require considerable efforts and resources to be directed towards supporting and increasing livelihood assets. Broader poverty-reducing economic growth factors such as investment in infrastructure, transport, power and communications will need to be addressed to underpin the medium and longer-term development agenda. The key to equitable economic growth will be to support and expand the already vibrant Somali private sector, increase productive capacity and increase employment opportunities. Specific areas to be developed are processing and marketing of traditional agriculture products, the livestock and fishery sectors, support to public investments in enabling infrastructure, support for other existing productive sectors, and the exploration of new opportunities for private investment. At the same time, livelihoods of the poorest strata of the population require additional support in order to reduce food insecurity and prevent them falling into destitution as a result of external shocks.
A. Strengthen Institutional Capabilities
Establish strengthen institutions and develop policies, laws and regulations. Effective and accountable state and non-state institutions will be given assistance to negotiate and prepare an enabling legal and regulatory framework that provides space for the private sector to grow, both in urban and rural areas. As much of Somalia’s potential growth is predicated on trade and integration into the broader Horn and Eastern Africa regional economy, programmes that facilitate such economic growth will be supported. Somalia is prone to disasters and support will be provided for disaster prevention and preparedness.
B. Develop Private/Public Partnerships
Provide an enabling environment for investment and Public-Private Partnership and for improving livelihoods Supported by an appropriate legislative and regulatory framework, Somalia’s private sector will benefit from an integrated development approach providing access to productive assets and markets, improved enabling infrastructure, improved natural resources management, territorial development, support to traditional productive areas of agriculture and livestock and basic urban and rural infrastructure. The government will focus on supporting economic development with particular emphasis on improving rural and urban livelihoods and support to public investments in basic infrastructure.
Prevention of resource, clan and religion-based conflict and armed violence in urban and rural areas through the active identification of community-based conflict management and peace-building initiatives will be a core element of all programme design and implementation.
Programming will include appropriate conflict assessment and review based on the Mainstreaming Conflict Prevention tool developed by safer world. This tool includes lessons learned from other post-conflict contexts, as well as recommendations on how to take forward the conflict assessment components in the various sectors of intervention; the specific activities and schedule for this are to be agreed upon between the government and the various partners, . DDR will be an important part of the process of peace building and conflict prevention; programmes will include targeted action to ensure ex-combatants have the skills needed to contribute to the economy. Other entry points for the implementation of this conflict prevention tool may be land issues, education and Non-State Actors.
The gender profile suggests that there have been some notable examples of women’s organisations challenging traditional, male-dominated power structures, the militias and the causes and course of conflict. However, they have not achieved the critical mass to effect sustainable social change and are clearly under-represented in the political, economic and social spheres. While conflict may raise the profile of women and give them new roles, evidence suggests that this is short-lived once there is peace.
The diverse and fragmented nature of the legal system does not serve to provide a sound basis for the resolution of gender issues. The practice of female genital mutilation is widespread (possibly as high as 98%) and while swift abandonment of the practice is unlikely, support will be provided for creating a dynamic of change. Women’s and broader human rights will be monitored closely as new social agendas emerge and develop.
The objective of embedding gender in all programmes will be to secure the rights of Somali women and men, taking particular account of UN Security Council Resolution 1325. Compliance with the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) will be encouraged and steps will be taken to monitor the situation relative to the Convention’s provisions. All programmes will include gender-specific indicators.
The key environmental challenges for Somalia stem from the effects of climate change on water, arable soil and biodiversity, increased population pressures, natural resource based conflicts, increased urbanisation and changing social patterns brought about by conflict.
Degradation of catchments, range areas, agricultural lands and the marine environment combined with illegal and abusive exploitation are critical issues to be addressed as they all impact on people's ability to meet subsistence needs and enhance productivity and economic growth.
The Country Environmental Profile identifies challenges for the sectors covered by the three pillars. A Strategic Environmental Assessment process will be used when preparing programmes resulting in specific actions and indicators being identified and included.
Somalia is a signatory to a number of international agreements; however, these are largely unimplemented and so attention will be paid to making them operational and incorporating the commitments into programmes, as well as promoting the signature of other instruments relevant to Somalia such as the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change or the Basel Convention on Hazardous Waste.
While the incidence of HIV/AIDS is believed to be low in Somalia, there is a potential for a rapid increase in infection rates. Conflict and post-conflict environments, transnational trading routes and large numbers of internally and externally displaced persons together with the breakdown of social structures have long been recognised as fertile breeding grounds for the spread of the disease. Policy will be reviewed in the context of each pillar and capacity strengthened to enable institutional contact points to act effectively in both the public and private sectors. Education, health and training interventions will be used as a specific vehicle to relay relevant messages. The Government of Somalia intends to involve the Clinton Foundation in the area.
Implementation and financing mechanisms
To ensure that interventions to implement the strategic framework are internally coherent, complementary with the actions of other donors and other stakeholders, and consistent across the pillars, joint programming, monitoring and review mechanisms will be established whenever possible. The approach adopted for the JSP consolidates the move towards a programme-based approach and away from fragmented and isolated projects.
Financing modalities for programme implementation will initially comprise a variety of donors’ own procedures with a gradual move towards a more harmonised approach which may include co-financing and delegated authority. The situation in Somalia is unlikely to allow for any form of direct budget support in the period of the current JSP, and alternative mechanisms to maximise aid efficiency and to reduce transaction costs will be explored.
Lessons learned from the experiences of using pooled funding and co-financing modalities in other countries emerging from conflict will be applied when designing programme financing. A Multi Donor Trust Fund approach will be further explored along with alternative mechanisms for pooling and managing resources. In addition, other innovative financing mechanisms to leverage additional resources will be explored, for example by establishing financial frameworks to encourage development investment from the Somali Diaspora.
Monitoring and review will be undertaken on an annual basis with all participants. The key elements of the review process will be the pillar indicators and the disaggregated indicators at sector programme level, including the cross-cutting indicators.
Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring of results and evaluations of impact of individual activities (programmes, projects, sectors) under this Special Support Programme will be undertaken in line with the Technical and Administrative Provisions that are attached to each individual Financial Conditions prepared to implement this Strategy Paper.
The results and impact of the International Community's cooperation with Somalia implemented through the Special Support Programme and through other external actions funded by the general budget of the European Community, will be assessed by means of an independent external evaluation. This country-level evaluation may be undertaken jointly with EU Member States and possibly also with other donor agencies.
Focal sector 1: Immediate Fixes
Immediate fixes are meant to improve the security situation so that economic activities can be enacted in some key fields using indigenous technologies in Agriculture and Cottage Industry segments. Several tasks are envisioned in this sector that require donor agency and donor country assistance
The following objectives are meant to be focussed in this segment:
Main Projects to be undertaken are listed below:
These activities are meant to jump start the economy with local indigenous technologies and supporting social development funds in the areas of agriculture, fishery, cottage industry and livestock.
Focal sector 2: Governance
The specific objective being pursued consists in deepening peace, improving security and establishing good governance. The main actions proposed for all donors are:
It is to be noted that the current context of weak governance and institutions does not allow for the adoption of main sector policy measures by the Government as a contribution to the implementation of the response strategy.
Focal sector 3: Education
The following specific objective will be pursued:
Effective delivery of relevant and sustainable education services (including cultural and religious education), accessible to the entire population will be undertaken. As an indicative amount, approximately USD 80 million will be set aside for this field.
The main actions proposed are:
Within the framework of a sector-wide approach in which existing donors will continue to concentrate their support to the expansion of primary and basic education services, the strategy will contribute to:
Strengthening and expanding:
The main implementing instrument will be sector support through a multi-donor mechanism (to be set up), and if this is not possible, through co-financing and project support. The main sectoral policy measures to be taken in coordination with Somali institutions are:
Focal sector 4: Economic Development and Food Security
The specific objective being pursued is to reduce food insecurity and to promote private sector-led economic development through an improved institutional and regulatory framework and sustainable natural resource management. As an indicative amount, approximately USD 150 million will be set aside for this field.
The main actions proposed are:
The main implementing instrument will be through co-financing and project support. The key cross-cutting issues will be the environment, conflict prevention, and gender. All interventions will promote awareness and understanding of the above issues in Somalia and how they can be addressed. When needed, the appropriate type of environmental assessment (SEA or EIA) will be carried out.
Strategic Task and Outcome Matrix
Pillar 0: Immediate fixes
Pillar 1: Deepen Peace and Security
Pillar 2: Enhance Social Services
Pillar 3: Poverty reduction and the consolidation of peace through sustainable and equitable economic growth
 Mr. Ban Ki-moon unveiling the action plan to combat piracy off the Somali coast, calling for greater support from national navies to fight a “global menace” that threatens not only international trade but the world body’s delivery of vital food aid to millions of hungry people.
|Last Updated on Tuesday, 21 February 2012 21:12|